Global NCAP Awards

David Ward

David Ward is the former head of policy to the Rt. Hon. John Smith QC MP

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John Smith (6)

Labour’s turning point

David Ward

Black Wednesday, the Maastricht treaty and what John Smith would think about Brexit Twenty-five years ago, ‘Black Wednesday’ saw the pound forced out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). This dramatic humiliation of John Major’s government on 16 September 1992, wrecked the Tory party’s reputation for economic competence and ignited a furious internal struggle over…